The state of Ouargla consists mainly of three (30) main areas: Wadi Me’ah, Wadi Reig and Hassi Massoud. These regions have different historical stages
Ouargla region and its environs
This area was known for its ancient historical civilization. It was established in Mélala and Sidi Khuwailid. In 1878, the French found carved stone quarries and arrowheads, ostrich eggs, and the remains of pottery vessels. The study conducted by Dr. Tricol and his team published in the newspaper “Lybica” confirms this, and the Roman coins found suggest that the trade which was then prevalent in addition to the slave trade, the trade of gold and ivory, who made the point Arriving convoys coming from Sudan and a starting point to bring fruits, grains and textiles
Described by the “Idrissi” that this city inhabited by wealthy families and traders negotiators made the trade tool to cut the distance and penetration into black Africa (Ghana, Angra), where gold is brought and beaten in the city of Ouargla
In addition to this economic development there is a cultural growth led to the emergence of scholars in religion, a traveler, historians, including: Abi Bakr al-Urjalani and Yusuf bin Ibrahim bin Miyad al-Sudrati al-Urjani. This era was characterized by the development of a social system that governed the life of the Ibadi society, but this did not last long because the hackers wanted to take possession of the gold road. In 1037, the son of Sultan al-Hammadi al-Nasser, the son of Sultan al-Hammadi al-Nasser, took control of the city of Ouargla. He was besieged by the valley of Ma’a. In 1075, the survivors of the killings and arrests were reunited in the city of Ouargla Fattam. It is still witness to this day.
If the city of Ouargla was rebuilt, the cities of Cedarata, Tremont, and Tamzogt were hanged and destroyed by the “Yahya ben Ghania Mairouki” who besieged the country in 1274, leaving only the ruins of the sand dunes that want to remind us of prosperity and prosperity This desert region has known this period of history as well as the concentration of the Arab crescent tribes in the region.
The strategic location of the city of Ouargla and whatever its new masters are, they have always been interested in the boycott of convoys and trade, and so the city of Ouargla has remained prosperous. Ibn Khaldun pointed out that at the end of the 4th century, Ashrakant and Arqla Gate of the Sahara is a transit point for travelers accompanied by goods coming from Al-Mizab towards Sudan.
The family of the region in that period were from the sons of Ouargla or from the sons of the ovens or the sons of Maghrawa, but the ruling family was from the sons of Gabboul of the tribe of Bani and Qin, and then came the family of the sons “above”, a foreign family came from Morocco ruled for a century known In which the country is a period of decay.
The follower of the sequence of events for the sons of Jalab Sultans paired determines the year 1535 the date of taking the Turks in control of the oases of southern Constantine, and to install this control launched Basha, “Saleh Rice” campaign on Tkrt and Rojla in 1552.
The French invasion took place in several stages: In 1849, Sultan Sankoucheh was appointed successor to Ouargla and was under French sovereignty. Two years later, the throne of Said was the threshold of those who form the majority of the armed forces led by Mohamed Ben Abdallah against the colonizer.
On January 27, 1854, the army of France led by Colonel Derbo entered the center of Ouargla city to arrest Sharif Mohamed Ben Abdallah.
From 1853 to 1864, the region of Ouargla was under the rule of the children of Sidi Cheikh and in 1863 Thi Sulaiman Ben Hamza was supported by his uncle and all the Ouargla tribes against the French.
In 1869 Mohammed ibn al-Toumi bin Ibrahim entered Bouchoucha and collected his supporters and appointed Sultan, but the army led by General Lacroix vaubois forced him to leave the city in January 1872 and forced the inhabitants to pay a war tax in retaliation. .
In view of the security situation in the Kasbah, the new Aga Ben Idris, appointed by the French, settled in the continent of Pamendale, now called the “Palace of Ben Idris”, whose ruins are still witness to this day
On February 27, 1962, the inhabitants of Ouargla came out in a violent demonstration that refused to separate the desert from the north. At that time, Evian negotiations were being held between the interim government and the French government over the Sahara issue.
The area of Tikrit (Valley of Reg)
The area of Tikrit is the capital of the Rigg Valley, which played an important role in the area where historians called it the Constantine desert. In his lessons on Prehistory of the Desert, Professor Balot pointed out that it is possible, according to the sculpted flint in the valley of Reg, that this area was inhabited by the Cossacks between 9,000 and 3000 BC.
The name of the valley of Reig originates, according to the historians, to the tribe of Righa, a branch of a large tribe of Bani Zanata, established in the region in the fifteenth century.
In the Roman era, the area was the scene of events, where Roman escapees were fleeing because of chaos, panic and instability. The Romans did not occupy the Rigg valley, but rather launched campaigns in the form of intermittent patrols by their Lviv tribes stationed in neighboring Mzab. In the second half of the 7th century AD, the leader Uqba ibn Nafie al-Fihri sent one of his companions, Hassan ibn al-Nu’man, to change the rule and lead the country between Biskra and Urgla.
According to those familiar with the history of the country, Lieutenant Hassan has the title of Alhashani, and to him, the men of Al-Hashan were appointed.
In the tenth and eleventh centuries, the valley of Reig was submerged by the influence of the Ibadin, who descended from the north and resorted to Argla and Sedratah (Wadi 100).
During the attack carried out by the Chaldeans on the palaces of Wadi Reig, the area was under the control of Salatana Bani Hammad (Houdna). After that, she became acquainted with her own governors (Bani Ubaid Allah), who were the offspring of the locals and converted to the Ibadi doctrine.
Ibn Khaldun assigned the destruction of the region to Ibn Ghayneh, who carried out subversive attacks in the valley of Rigg with the Almohads. The country was thus divided into the Almohads, then the Hafsis and was assigned to Ibn al-Muzni, who ruled Biskra on behalf of this family.
The Maliki sect spread in the region through pilgrims coming from Morocco to the Holy Bekaa by caravans. Among these convoys came the annexation of Sultan Muhammad ibn Yahia al-Idrisi, who ruled the Wadi Reg area for 40 years and was one of the most important publishers of the Maliki school in the region.
In 1445, the ruler of the Wadi Reg area was Sultan Haji Sulaiman bin Rajab bin Jalab al-Marini, founder of the rule of Bani Jilab, which lasted for four centuries.
In 1528, Pilek Constantine was established and was appointed in the south of the country. They are Sheikh Arab Dawouda and Sultan Jalabi in Tikrit. In 1552, the Pasha “Saleh Rice” carried out a military campaign against a city that was associated with the rebellion of the people of Kerkat and the neighboring cities of Ouargla against the Central Command and their refusal to pay the taxpayer and fining them to declare their secession from the rule of the Turks and their independence from the Bailek. 2 passengers and surrendered after 3 days.
In 1788, the city of Wadi Reig was surrounded by Al-Saleh who, along with his soldiers, managed to enter and break into the city, whose walls were surrounded by artillery. Shaykh ‘Umar was deposed and Sheikh Ahmad was installed there. Ali Saleh Rustom took over the contract. He returned to Constantine and was annexed to Bailek the East.
In 1844, the French, led by the Duke of Dumal, occupied the city of Biskra and imposed an annual tax of 20,000 francs on the authority of Sultan Abderrahmane Ben Ghalab for their recognition of his sovereignty over the valley of Rigg Wassouf.
On January 25, 1852, Salman al-Jalabi and his followers attacked a palace that tied up and beat the pro-French Abdel-Rahman, took over the throne, joined the militant party Mohammed ibn Abdallah and denied any agreement with the French.
On November 11, 1854, French troops under the command of Major Marmier were forced to cross the town walls. After ten days of siege, he was forced to flee to Wadi Suf and then to Tunisia. He was replaced by his cousin Abdelkader, who was under 20 years of age. And the guardianship of Ahmad ibn al-Haj ibn Qana.
On December 5, 1854, General Deveux took over the capital of Beni Ghalab. The French took the withdrawal of Mohamed Ben Abdallah and Salman to Tunisia to continue their march towards the south and break the people’s stride by using repression methods to terrorize them and subdue them completely and kill the spirit of revolution in them.
On May 13, 1871, Muhammad ibn al-Toumi ibn Ibrahim, known as Bouchoucha, seized the opportunity of the absence of the Aga Ali Bai, who was in his possession by the camel. He took over a city that was annexed after the destruction of the barracks under the command of Lieutenant Mousselli, Months.
On 27 December 1871 French forces equipped a strong army led by General «DELACROIX» and re-seized the city. Before 1954, many national movements emerged that were able to be concentrated in the region.
In the early 1950s, French forces managed to stop the leaders and activists of the Algerian People’s Party in Tikrit and Ouargla.
Immediately after the reorganization that followed the SOMAM, I annexed the regions of Ouargla and recognized the fifth region of the Sixth State.
Despite the nature of the area, which was not easy to carry out the attacks, there were several battles (especially Battle of Qardash).
The date of November 19, 1957 was bloody in Tukrat where documents were found in the body of an official who fell into the square of honor, allowing the French to arrest 2,500 militants, including Bulifa Hama Amran, the cousin of Mohammed and Tutsi Lazari, political officials in the city and executed without any form of government.
But the main concern of the inhabitants of this region is the attempt by the French authorities to isolate the Sahara from the rest of Algeria. To express these concerns and preserve the unity of the national territory, demonstrations took place on the day of Eid al-Fitr in Tikrit and the second on February 27, 1962 Borgala.
Hassi Massoud area
The local word “Alhassi” means the well. Hassi Messaoud is a modern modern-day dam located in the south of Ouargla state, about 80 km away. Although it has more than 1000 wells for oil and water, its residents prefer to call the area “Alhassi” Hassi Messaoud .
Many of the symbols are said to be the city of black gold and green gold and are also said to combine the characteristics of villages, and the recipes of major cities.
The simplicity of its population and its ability to conquer the Sahara and its cruelty, read in their faces the map of Algeria, they came from different parts of the country at first was their request to work and eventually preferred stability and the reconstruction of the wasteland.
Hassi Massoud is a city that does not have the effects of the years. Its beginning is a real story that may seem closer today to the myth.
In this city everyone knows the story of that nomad Sheikh Rawabah Mas’ud ibn Ammar, who came to the area with his family from the village of Mtlili al-Shaanba, looking for pasture and usually nomads.
This happened in 1917 when he set foot in this Bekaa and Tabab for him, he wanted stability and dug a well until it reached the waters of a depth of 20 meters deep, and as usual for the people of the south has become the well since then bear the name of its owner »Hassi Massoud« well down Caravans to a prominent site of great fame in modern history During the short period of life of the small city Hasi Masood witnessed three important historical events, the first of which pushed this region to the forefront was in 1956 when the flow of oil for the first time from the oil well